The following are Native American Confederate soldiers, derived
from records of the National Archives. This listing is to give the reader
a better understanding of the ethnic variance within the southern
ranks. It is far from being a complete listing of Native American Confederates.
Most of the soldiers below had only one traditional Indian name, instead
of a Christian/Anglo first and last names. Many others not
listed had taken on Christian first names and kept their traditional Indian
name as a last names.
|A har lock NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. Co.F
A po to tubbee 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles 2nd Co.C
A tun hee NS 1st Cherokee Mtd.Rifles Co.C
A wie NS 1st Cherokee Mtd.Rifles Co.E
A-to-la he NS 1st Cherokee Mtd.Rifles Co.B
Ca co fun na No First Name NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. Co.E
Ca to No First Name NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. Co.A
Ca yo No First Name NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. 2nd Co.I
E char chy No First Name NS 1st Cherokee Mtd.Rifles Co.D
Fa lin nee No First Name NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. 2nd Co.C
Ha ke No First Name NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. Co.E
Iarpe cock No First Name NS 1st Seminole Mtd.Vol.
Ille hum ma chi No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles
Illa fa nubbee No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles
Immahantubbee No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles
Immonahby No First Name NS Deneale's Regt. Choctaw Warriors Co.A
Inclinisten Emathla No First Name NS 1st Seminole Mtd.Vol.
Jack (Indian) No First Name TX Cav. Morgan's Regt. Co.K
Kah lam ba No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles 2nd
Kampe lubbee No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles
Kanihmikubbee No First Name NS 1st Choctaw Mtd.Rifles Co.G
Kar lar ney, Daniel NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. Co.F
Kas Knu ne Man Killer No First Name NS 1st Cherokee Mtd.Rifles Co.E
Ma hat che No First Name NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. 2nd Co.I
Ma wo ly No First Name NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. Co.M
Nak i ma sha No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles
Nakey Abi No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles Co.A
Ta cha year No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles
Wacom No First Name NS 1st Choctaw & Chickasaw Mtd.Rifles 2nd Co.I
Za cup pi chee No First Name NS 1st Creek Mtd.Vol. Co.G
By the spring of 1861, Stand Watie (1806-1871), the leader of the southern faction of the Cherokee Nation, was a prosperous attorney and speaker of the nation’s National Council (the lower house of the Cherokee legislature). He owned a plantation and mill at Honey Creek in the Illinois District of the Cherokee Nation.
1st (Watie’s) Cherokee Mounted Volunteers
(2nd Cherokee Mounted Volunteers [designation changed to 1st Regiment about Dec 62, after Drew’s regiment had disbanded], Watie’s Regiment Cherokee Mounted Rifles)
COLONELS. Stand Watie, promoted Brig Gen 6 May 64; James Madison Bell, promoted and transferred from Lt Col of the 2nd Regt after Watie became general
LIEUTENANT COLONELS. Thomas Fox Taylor, KIA 27 Jul 62, Bayou Menard (n. Fort Gibson); Robert Calvin Parks, replaced Taylor ( from Capt, 1st Co B) killed by a fellow officer in a personal difficulty at Fort Washita in April 1864; Clement Neeley Vann, succeeded Parks (prev pvt Co K, Drew’s Regt?)
MAJORS. Elias Cornelius Boudinot, after reorganization elected Cherokee delegate to Congress, Col and Vol ADC on Maj Gen T C Hindman’s staff in Dec 62; Joseph Franklin Thompson, (from Capt, 1st Co I); Erasmus J Howland, succeeded Thompson in 1864 (from Capt, 2nd Co D).
Adjutant: 1st Lt Charles E Watie, to 1st Lt, 2nd Co B after reorganization;
Assistant Quarter Master: 1st Lt George W Adair, died April 62; 1st
Lt William Penn
Asst. Commissary of Subsistence: 1st Lt Joseph M Starr, Sr, until 62; 1st Lts Oliver W Lipe (from pvt, 2nd Co G) resigned 3 Jun 63; Peter G Lynch (from pvt, 2nd Co B), Samuel M Ware (from pvt, 2nd Co A)
Surgeon: Maj Walter Thompson Adair, to Brigade Surgeon 1864
Surgeon’s Interpreter: Capt Richard Fields (prev Capt, Co F, Drew’s
Quartermaster Sergeant: Benjamin W Carter (from pvt, 2nd Co G), John
Ordnance Sergeant: George W Harlin
Companies and their commanders - first organization
Company A. Buzzard, KIA 20 May 63 n. Fort Gibson.
In addition, Thomas J Parks was designated to lead Company M, but this does not appear to have materialized.
ORGANIZATION. On July 12, 1861, Stand Watie received a commission from Brig Gen Benjamin McCulloch to raise a regiment. At a mass meeting of the southern symphatizers among the Five Civilized tribes held at Old Fort Wayne, Delaware District, in the Cherokee Nation, on July 27, 1861, organization of the First Cherokee Regiment began. After the twelve-month enlistment time expired, the regiment was reorganized around 12 July 1862 at Spavinaw Creek, Tahlequah District, for 2 years, with mostly new officers and many new men. Note that the companies were not reorganized separately, rather a set of new companies were formed and new officers elected, although the majority of the men continued in service from the first organization.
Companies and their commanders - SECOND organization
Company A. Hugh Tinnin
ORGANIZATION. Company A was mustered in 12 May 62 in Maysville, Ark.
Companies B to K, plus Acridge’s, Alberty’s, Brewer’s, and Patton’s are
all on record as having enlisted 12 July 1862 at Spavinaw Creek, Tahlequah
District, Cherokee Nation. On September 1, 1862, another company - John
Vann’s - was added, made up mostly of loyal men from Drew’s late regiment.
The five unnumbered companies were on February 3, 1863, merged with Bryan’s
1st Battalion, Cherokee Partisan Rangers to form the 2nd (Adair’s) Cherokee
Drew’s Regiment, Cherokee Mounted Rifles
(1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles)
COLONEL. John Drew.
Adjutant: 1st Lt James S Vann, resigned 12 Dec 61
Companies and their commanders
Company A. (Saline District) Jefferson D Hicks, KIA 27 Jul 62, Bayou
Menard, n. Fort Gibson ?
ORGANIZATION. At a mass meeting at Tahlequah 21 August 1861, the Cherokees decided to seek alliance with the Confederate States, and also to raise a mounted regiment. Each of the nine districts of the Cherokee Nation raised one company, except Tahlequah, which furnished three. By October 7, the day the treaty between the Cherokee Nation and the Confederacy was signed, the regiment was almost completed. At Fort Gibson, on November 5, 1861 the regiment was officially mustered in for a period of twelve months, with 1214 men on the rolls.
Drew’s regiment, composed mostly of full-blood Cherokees («Pins»)
hostile to Stand Watie and his followers, never identified with the Southern
cause. During the pursuit of the Creek dissident Opothleyahola in December
1861, officers and men refused to fight, deserted in large numbers, and
many even joined the enemy. A reorganization of the regiment was attempted,
and about 500 of its men fought at Pea Ridge the first day (March 7, 1862),
where they scalped some Federal soldiers. A Union invasion of the Cherokee
Nation in July 1862 resulted in the mass surrender of most of Drew’s men,
and their subsequent enlistment in the Federal 2nd and 3rd Indian Home
Guard Regiments. A few officers and men (notably Colonel Drew, Captains
John Porum Davis, Pickens M Benge, Richard Fields, and Lieutenant Charles
Drew) remained loyal to the Confederacy and later served under Stand Watie.
Captain John Vann’s company of Watie’s 1st Regiment, later Co I of the
2nd Regiment (formed 1 Sep 62), was composed mostly of loyal Confederates
from the ranks of Drew’s late regiment.
1st (Bryan’s) Battalion, Cherokee Partisan Rangers
(Bryan’s Battalion, Cherokee Mounted Rifles)
MAJOR. Joel M Bryan, to commander of Cherokee Bn Special Service
Adjutant: Lt. Joel B Mayes, to AQM of 2nd Regt
Companies and their commanders
Company A. Joel M Bryan , to Major 13 Sep 62, William H Shannon (from
1st Lt) Became Co H, 2nd Regt on 3 Feb 63.
ORGANIZATION. Joel M Bryan was authorized by Brig Gen Albert Pike to raise 100 men or more as partisan rangers during the summer of 1862. The company (A) was mustered in at Fort Davis, Canadian District, Cherokee Nation, July 20, 1862. Bryan proceeded to recruit another four companies, and was ordered by Maj Gen Thomas C Hindman to organize the force into a battalion, which was done September 13, 1862. Records indicate that the enlistment term was three years.
By order of Brig Gen Douglas H Cooper, the battalion was on February
3, 1863, consolidated with 5 companies attached to Watie’s 1st Cherokee
Mounted Volunteers to form the 2nd (Adair’s) Cherokee Mounted Volunteers
1st (Holt’s) Squadron, Cherokee Mounted Volunteers
Commander: Col. Charles H. Holt, after 30 Aug 1863
STAFF. Adjutant Charles C Reed.
ORGANIZATION. This company was mustered in at Webber’s Falls, Canadian
District, Cherokee Nation, 12 December 62, for two years. The last record
of the company is dated June 30, 1863, it may have been assigned to the
2nd Regiment as Company L after that date.
COLONEL. William Penn Adair (prev AQM, 1st Regt).
LIEUTENANT COLONELS. James Madison Bell (from Capt, 1st Co D, 1st Regt) promoted and transferred to the 1st Regt in June 1864; O H Perry Bewer, succeeded Bell (from Capt, Co F).
MAJORS. T Porter Hammock, appointed 26 Apr 63 ( from 2d Lt, Co A); John R Harden, by May 64 ( from Capt, Co C ); John F Vann, by Sept 64 ( from Capt, Co I).
Adjutant: 1st Lts Joseph A Scales (from 1st Sgt, 2nd Co F, 1st Regt)
to Capt, Co A, Frye’s Bn June 63; Andrew J Greenway (from 2nd Lt, Co B);
S T Fair (from pvt, Co C)
Assistant Quarter Master: Capt Joel B Mayes (from Adjt, 1st P R Bn) to Brigade AQM 1864); J W Phagan, to Capt, Co G, 12 Jul 64.
Ass Commissary of Subsistence: 1st Lt Richard F Martin
Surgeon: Maj Thomas M Colley, resigned 16 Apr 63; William J Dupree appointed 24 Jul 63.
Assistant Surgeon: Capts Robert White, resigned 16 Apr 63; Harrison J Payden (prev Ass Surg of 1st P R Bn), W C Dunn
Chaplain: Rev Elder L Compere
Drill Master: 2nd Lt Michael L Coudon (from pvt, Co G) to 2nd Lt, Co E, June 63.
Sergeant Major: J W Burk (from pvt, Co D), Riley Walter Lindsay (from Co H)
Quartermaster Sergeant: A W Timberlake
Ordnance Sergeant: J Foster Bell
Hospital Steward: J Frank Marrs (from pvt, Co H)
CAPTAIN. Charles H Holt, to Captain of Co L, 2nd Regt after 30 Jun 63 ?.
Companies and their commanders
Company A. John Miller, to Cherokee Battalion, Special Service 1865;
T D Flinn ? (from 1st Lt)
Company B. Bluford West Alberty
Company C. John R Harden, to Major by May 64; W H Hendren (from 1st Lt)
Company D. Joseph L Martin
Company E. D C Patton
Company F. O H Perry Brewer, to Lt Col July 64; Thomas F Brewer ? (from 1st Lt)
Company G. William H Acridge, J W Phagan (12 Jul 64, from AQM)
Company H. William H Shannon
Company I. John F Vann, to Major by Sept 64; Cary Walker ? (from 1st Lt)
Company K. E M Adair
Company L (?). Charles H Holt
ORGANIZATION. Formed 3 February 1863 at Prairie Springs, Creek Nation (winter camp of Indian Cavalry Brigade, 15 miles southeast of Fort Gibson), by the consolidation of Bryan’s 1st Battalion, Cherokee Partisan Rangers, and five companies attached to Watie’s 1st Cherokee Mounted Volunteers.
MAJORS. Moses C Frye (prev Capt, 1st Co I, 1st Regiment); Joseph Absalom Scales, promoted Major 23 Apr 64 (from Capt, Co A), to Brigade AIG after Bn was disbanded.
Companies and their commanders
Company A. Joseph Absalom Scales (prev Adjt, 2nd Regt), to Major
23 Apr 64.
Company ?. Morgan (prev 1st Lt, Holt’s Squadron ?), MW 18 Dec 63, Barren Fork, I. T.
Company ?. John Spears (prev Capt, 2nd Co H, 1st Regt)
ORGANIZATION. On April 1, 1863, Col Watie was authorized to raise a Cherokee brigade. After the 2nd Regiment had been formed, steps were taken to enlist another unit. The first company (A) was probably organized on 3 June 63, but details about the other companies are missing. Consisted of 4 companies by December 1863. The battalion was apparently broken up and consolidated with the 1st and 2nd Regiments about 12 July 64.
A general reorganization of the Cherokee forces took place on Limestone
Prairie, Choctaw Nation, after Watie had been promoted Brigadier General
and the Cherokees on June 27, 1864, had declared their unanimous reenlistment
for the war. On July 11, the Cherokee National Council passed a conscription
act, which required that all able bodied free citizens between 17-45 report
for duty before August 1.
LIEUTENANT COLONEL. Joel M Bryan (prev Major, 1st Partisan Ranger Bn)
Companies and their commanders
Company ?. John Miller (prev Capt, Co A, 2nd Regt)
ORGANIZATION. Not much is known about this organization, which is
mentioned in Brig Gen Douglas H Cooper’s correspondence in March and May
of 1865 and in a Federal report dated 23 Apr 65, then supposed to be at
Fort Towson (in the southern Choctaw Nation), 300 strong. Joel M Bryan,
who previously led the 1st Partisan Ranger Bn, was the commander. Captain
John Miller led a company, and a Captain Owens another.
1st (Meyer’s) Battalion, Cherokee Cavalry is a «paper»
organization that never existed. Major Benjamin W Meyer may have received
authorization to raise a battalion early in the war, but he never did.
COLONEL. William Holland Thomas, Col of Thomas’ NC Infantry Regt 27 Sep 1862, which was a month later increased to a Legion. Relinquished field command of the Legion about 1 Sep 63 (officially in command until March 1865), except the Cherokee Battalion, which he personally commanded until war’s end.
Companies and their commanders
Company A. William Holland Thomas, 9 April 62, to Major of Thomas’
Inf Bn Jul 62; James W Terrell, 19 Jul 62 (from 1st Lt), to AQM of Thomas’
Inf Regt (later Legion) 27 Sep 62; Matthew H Love, 27 Sep 62 (from the
16th NC Inf Regt).
ORGANIZATION. The nucleus of the battalion was the «Junaluska
Zuaves», a North Carolina militia company of Cherokees organized
in Quallatown in May 1861 by William H Thomas. Company A was mustered into
CS service April 9, 1862, at Quallatown. Company B was organized in Knoxville,
Tn, on May 18, 1862, by a division of the overstrength Co A. In July 1862,
these two companies formed part of Thomas’ Infantry Battalion. The battalion
was increased and reorganized as Thomas’ NC Infantry Regiment on September
27, 1862, in Knoxville. The Cherokee companies then became Cos C and D,
respectively. In October, another battalion (Walker’s) was added to Thomas’
command, which thereafter became known as Thomas’ Legion of Indians and
Highlanders. In January 1863, the two Cherokee companies reverted back
to their previous designations as Co A and B of the Infantry Regiment (Love’s),
Thomas’ Legion. The Cherokee companies were detached from the regiment
in September 1863, and from then on served as a separate battalion under
Thomas’ direct command (who at that point relinquished field command of
the Legion). Company C was added in Quallatown in December 1863, and Company
D organized in the summer of 1864. Not until April 9, 1865, however, was
the Cherokee Battalion officially mustered as a separate unit of Thomas’
Legion. At that time the battalion reportedly totalled about 300 men.
Wilfred Knight, Jr Red Fox: Stand Watie’s Civil War Years in Indian
Annie H Abel The American Indian as Slaveholder and Secessionist
Annie H Abel The American Indian in the Civil War 1862-1865
Annie H Abel The American Indian and the End of the Confederacy 1863-1866
Larry C Rampp & Donald L Rampp The Civil War in Indian Territory
Carolyn M Bartels Stand Watie and the First Cherokee Regiment 1861-1865
Edward E Dale & Gaston Litton (eds) Cherokee Cavaliers: Forty Years of Cherokee History as Told in the Correspondence of the Ridge-Watie-Boudinot Family
Mabel W Anderson Life of General Stand Watie
W Craig Gaines The Confederate Cherokees: John Drew’s Regiment of Mounted Rifles
Stewart Sifakis Compendium of the Confederate Armies: Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, the Confederate Units, and the Indian Units
National Archives Microfilm M861 Compiled Records Showing Service of Military Units in Confederate Organizations Roll 74 - Organizations raised directly by the Confederate Government (regular infantry, Indian units, engineer troops, etc)
Marybelle W Chase Index to Civil War Service Records: Watie’s Cherokee Regiments
Vernon H Crow Storm in the Mountains: Thomas’ Confederate Legion of Cherokee Indians and Mountaineers
Official Records of the War of the Rebellion